The Mediterranean Diet

 


The Mediterranean Diet is a current dietary recommendation stimulated by way of the traditional dietary styles of Greece, southern Italy, Spain, Morocco, and some Mediterranean regions.

The main aspects of this diet include high consumption of olive oil, legumes, unrefined grains, fruits, and vegetables, moderate to large amounts of fish, moderate consumption of dairy products (particularly cheese and yogurt), and the occasional intake of meat and meat merchandise. 2010, UNESCO recognized this diet as the intangible cultural heritage of Italy, Greece, Spain, and Morocco.

Despite its name, this diet is not ideal for all Mediterranean cuisines; In northern Italy, for example, lard and butter are commonly used in cooking, and olive oil is preserved in salad dressings and cooked vegetables; In both North Africa and the Middle East, sheep butt fat and trans figure) are the traditional primary fats, with some exceptions.

A generally agreed view of the Mediterranean diet was put forward, among other views, With the aid of Dr. Walter Willett of Harvard University's School of Public Health in the mid-1990s. Based on "typical dietary patterns of Crete, much of the rest of Greece, and southern Italy in the early 1960s", this diet, in addition to "regular physical activity," emphasized, "plant foods in an abundance, and sparkling fruit as a great every day after meal." Olive oil is a number one source of fat, dairy products (especially cheese and yogurt), fish and chicken consumed in low to slight quantities, zero to four eggs consumed per week, red meat consumed in low amounts, and wine consumed in low to moderate amounts. The total fat in this diet is 25% to 35% of calories, plus saturated fat is 8% or less of calories. Olive oil is a characteristic of the Mediterranean diet. It contains a very high level of monounsaturated fats, oleic acid in particular, which epidemiological studies suggest may be linked to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. There is also evidence that the antioxidants in olive oil improve cholesterol, lower LDL cholesterol, and have anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive effects.

history

It was first announced in 1945 by Ancel Keys, an American physician based in Italy.

The Mediterranean diet gained widespread recognition in 1990.

Objective information showing that the Mediterranean diet is healthy, was first created by the seven countries participating in the study.

The Mediterranean Diet is based on a mainstream nutritional viewpoint on a meditative paradox: Although people living in Mediterranean countries tend to consume relatively high amounts of fat, they have much lower rates of cardiovascular disease than in other countries. Like the USA, where similar levels of fat consumption have been found; A similar phenomenon is known as the French Paradox.

A diet rich in salads in England during the early Renaissance was promoted by Giacomo Castelvetro with a simple reliance on fruits, herbs, and vegetables in Italy, and he tried, without success, to persuade the English to eat more fruits and vegetables.

health effects

Several diets have received attention, but the best evidence for good health effects and reduced mortality after switching to a largely plant-based diet comes from studies of the Mediterranean diet, for example from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

The Mediterranean diet is often cited as beneficial for being low in saturated fat and high in monounsaturated fat and dietary fiber.

One of the main explanations for this is believed to be the health effects of olive oil included in the Mediterranean diet.

The Mediterranean diet is high in salt; Foods such as olives, pickles, cheese, anchovies, pickled capers, and salted fish eggs all contain high levels of salt.

Dietary factors are only part of the reason for the health benefits enjoyed by some Mediterranean cultures; A healthy lifestyle (particularly a physically active lifestyle or work) is also beneficial; The surrounding environment may also be shared. However, at the population level, i.e. for the population of an entire country or region, the effect of genetics is minimal, because it shows the slow change in the behavior of the Mediterranean population, from a healthy lifestyle and Mediterranean diet to an unhealthy, a less physically active lifestyle and a diet that mimics the Western diet significantly increases the risk of heart disease.

There is an inverse relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the incidence of fatal and non-fatal heart disease in already healthy middle-aged adults in the Mediterranean region.

A 2011 systematic review found that the Mediterranean diet appears to be more effective than a low-fat diet in producing long-term changes in cardiovascular risk factors such as lowering cholesterol and blood pressure.

A 10-year study found that adhering to a Mediterranean diet and a healthy lifestyle was associated with a more than 50% reduction in early death rates.

A 5-year study of 7,447 people reported that the Mediterranean diet reduced the risk of heart disease in high-risk individuals by "about 30 percent" compared to individuals following only a low-fat diet. The supposed benefits of the Mediterranean diet for cardiovascular health are primarily related to nature, and while they reflect a very real variance in the geographical location of heart disease, it has proven difficult to determine the causal determinants of this disparity.

The most popular nutritional candidate, olive oil, has been undermined by a body of empirical evidence that diets fortified with monounsaturated fats such as olive oil are not protective against atherosclerosis compared to diets fortified with either polyunsaturated fat or even saturated fat.

An alternative hypothesis that has recently emerged for the Mediterranean diet is that varying exposure to UV radiation leads to disparities in cardiovascular health among the populations of Mediterranean countries and most northern countries; The proposed mechanism is the accumulation of solar UV rays from vitamin D in oils from the skin, which has been observed to reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease, which decreases rapidly with increasing latitude.

Interestingly, Mediterranean residents also note that very low rates of skin cancer (which is widely believed to be caused by excessive exposure to solar UV rays), and melanoma in Mediterranean countries are lower than previously reported. It is in northern Europe and significantly less than in other hot countries such as Australia and New Zealand.

It has been hypothesized that some components of the Mediterranean diet may protect against skin cancer.

A study published in the Annals of General Psychiatry showed that people who followed the Mediterranean diet were less likely to develop depression.

medical research

A study found that men on the Greek island of Crete had exceptionally low rates of death from heart disease, despite eating moderate to high amounts of fat. The Cretan diet is similar to the other traditional Mediterranean diet, which consists mostly of olive oil and bread, plenty of vegetables and fruits, fish, and a moderate amount of dairy and wine. Ari's study began by mimicking the Cretan diet, but took a scientific approach, verifying that most of the people in the study (all first heart attack survivors) who were opposed to switching from butter to olive oil used ghee, hydrogenated from rapeseed (canola) oil. Dietary changes also included a 20% increase in vitamin C-rich fruits and bread, and a decrease in red and processed meat; On this diet, the death rate from all causes was reduced by 70%; The study was so successful that the ethics committee ruled it should be discontinued early so that the results could become public immediately. According to a 2008 study published in the British Medical Journal, the traditional Mediterranean diet offers significant protection against type 2 diabetes; The study included more than 13,000 graduates from the University of Navarra in Spain with no history of diabetes, who volunteered between December 1999 and November 2007, and who subsequently followed healthy eating habits. Initially, participants completed a 136-item food frequency questionnaire which was designed to organize a complete diet. ; The questionnaire also included questions about the use of fats and oils, cooking methods, and nutritional supplements; Every two years, participants sent out follow-up questionnaires regarding diet and lifestyle, risk factors, and medical reports. During the follow-up period (average of 4.4 years), researchers from the University of Navarre found that participants who adhered to this diet had a lower risk of developing diabetes. High adherence to the diet was associated with an 83% reduction in the risk of developing diabetes. A 2008 study published in The New England Journal of Medical Studies reported the effects of three diets: a low-carb, low-fat, and Mediterranean diet. The study included 322 participants and lasted for two years. The low-carbohydrate diet and the Mediterranean diet led to the largest weight loss, 12 pounds, and 10 pounds, respectively. The low-fat diet contributed to the loss of 7 lbs. One caveat from this study is that 86% of the study participants are men. The low-carbohydrate diet and the Mediterranean diet resulted in similar amounts of weight loss in overall study results and men. In the remaining participants who were women, the Mediterranean diet resulted in an average weight loss of 3.8 kg (8.4 lb) more than the low-carb diet. However, the low carbohydrate diet resulted in more positive changes in blood lipids. A subjective explanation published in the British Medical Journal in 2008 showed that strict adherence to the Mediterranean diet lowered the risk of death from cancer and cardiovascular disease as well as the risk of developing Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. The results of the report 9%, 9%, and 6% reduced the overall, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality rates, respectively. In addition, a 13% decrease in the incidence of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease is expected, provided that the diet is strictly adhered to. Also, a 2007 study found that adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MeDi) influences not only the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) but also the later course of the disease: high adherence to the MeDi is associated with lower mortality from the disease. Alzheimer AD. The gradual reduction in the risk of death in the case of high adherence to the Mediterranean diet suggests the potential for treatment effect and response. A study published in the British Medical Journal in 2009 showed some components of the Mediterranean diet, such as increased consumption of vegetables and decreased consumption of meat and meat products, were significantly associated with a lower risk of death than other components, such as consumption of grains and consumption of fish. As part of the prospective European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, researchers followed more than 23,000 Greek men and women for 8.5 years to see how different aspects of the Mediterranean diet affect mortality. Higher consumption of fruits and legumes is also associated with a lower risk of death. The Mediterranean diet expressed extensive lifestyle interventions in the follow-up clinical study, improving renal artery blood flow, and lowering the renal index of resistance, even without significant changes in insulin resistance. This is a beneficial effect and modifies the pathophysiology of critical hypertension.

Another study published in February 2010 found that the diet may help keep the brain healthy by reducing the frequency of micro-strokes that can contribute to deteriorating mental ability. The Mediterranean Diet has become a popular and successful holistic model for promoting healthy lifestyles.

In 2011, self-interpretation (a method or procedure for analyzing the outcome of research by combining the results of several independent research) was published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology analyzing the results of 50 studies (35 clinical trials, 2 prospective, 13 cross-sectional) covering approximately 535,000 people to study the effect of the regimen. Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome. The researchers reported that the Mediterranean diet was associated with lower blood pressure, blood sugar, and triglycerides.

A 2012 study in Israel, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, found that even people who regained some weight after implementing the Mediterranean diet could reap lasting benefits from it.

A subjective explanation published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2013 compares Mediterranean diets, vegan, low-GI, low-carb, high-fiber, high-protein with control diets. The research concluded that Mediterranean diets that are low in carbohydrates, low in the glycemic index, and rich in protein are effective in improving risk markers for cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

Recently, a Spanish randomized trial of diet patterns published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 2013 for nearly 7,500 individuals over about 5 years found that individuals who increased their Mediterranean diet with nuts and olive oil contributed to a 30% reduction in their overall cardiovascular risk. main and a 49 percent reduction in stroke risk. They tend to mimic one of three different diets. Include either a low-fat diet, the Mediterranean diet with 50ml of extra virgin (unrefined) olive oil daily, or the Mediterranean diet with 30g of nuts. Nuts are primarily walnuts, which contain a high amount of omega-3 fatty acids.

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